RISET PENGGUNAAN MEDIA DAN PERKEMBANGANNYA KINI

Karman Karman

Abstract

ABSTRACT

Theory of Uses-and-gratifications (U & G) is one of theories used by most of media usage studies. This theory gives an attention on what people do with media. Formely, that theory was develoved by Kazt and Gurevic. Recently, it has develoved siginificantly, specially on its gratifivations concept. This significant development was influenced by the develpment of new media (internet). This article studied about state of the art of the theory within last 13 years. The result showed that the theory was fuctioned as single or core theory in most studies. Sometimes, several studies used other theory for example Media Dependency Theory. Although those two theories were different to each other in their elements (assumption and concept), but they have a similarity in the term of the study object (audience), and in theoretical tradition (social-psychological). Its gratification concept has a propensity to be miscellaneous. Moreover, media that met with an audience’s need have been developing from traditional into new media (internet), even into certain application. Past research approach was generally quantitative by surveying, and sometime qualitative approach to enrich data. Additionally, most surveys were conducted by internet (online surveys).

 

Keywords: Uses; Gratifications; Media

ABSTRAK

Uses-and-gratifications (U & G) merupakan salah satu teori yang banyak digunakan dalam penelitian tentang penggunaan media. Teori ini memberikan perhatian pada apa yang dilakukan khalayak terhadap media. Teori yang awalnya dikembangkan Kazt dan Gurevic memiliki banyak perkembangan khususnya pada konsep gratifikasinya. Perkembangan yang pesat ini muncul setelah berkembangnya media baru atau internet. Tulisan ini mengkaji state of the art teori tersebut pada 13 tahun terakhir. Hasilnya menunjukkan bahwa teori tersebut sering dijadikan teori inti dalam kajian penggunaan media. Adakalanya beberapa penelitian memadukan teori tersebut dengan Teori Media Dependency. Kendatipun berbeda dalam hal asumsi dan konsepnya, kedua tersebut memiliki kesamaan dalam hal titik fokusnya yang memusatkan kajian pada khalayak, dan sama dalam hal tradisi teorinya yaitu sosio-psikologis. Konsep gratifikasi teori ini cenderung semakin beragam. Media yang memenuhi kebutuhan khalayak mengalami perkembangan dari media tradisional ke media baru (internet), bahkan ke aplikasi tertentu. Pendekatan penelitian yang digunakan umumnya menggunakan pendekatan kuantitatif dengan teknik survei (acapkali didukung juga dengan pendekatan kualitatif). Survei yang dilakukan umumnya sudah lazim dilakukan secara online.

 

Kata-kata Kunci: Penggunaan; Gratifikasi, Media





DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.31445/jskm.2013.170106

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