Fact-Checking Practice Regarding Information of Covid-19 Pandemic on Tempo.co, Tirto.id, and Kompas.com

Main Article Content

YA Nunung Prajarto


Infodemics and Coronavirus hoaxes during the period of Covid-19 pandemic are circulating freely and massively in Indonesia. Although information widens opportunities for public to understand the dangers of Coronavirus, this raises concerns about the accuracy and clarity of existing information and pushes verified media to operate fact-checking. This content analysis reseach was conducted towards factchecking practices of 174 pandemic information published by Tempo.co, Tirto.id, and Kompas.com in March-May 2020 by elaborating fact-claims, fact-checking process, and forms of missinfodemics which leads to unnderstand that fact-checking is a complex process. First, the domination of contect fabrication and manipulation on fact-checking shows innacurate narratives on infodemics. Second, practice of fact-checking journalism is clearly addressed to verify information. Third, media have become attractive and collaborative storytellers in verifying information.


Article Details

Author Biography

YA Nunung Prajarto, Departemen Ilmu Komunikasi Fakultas Ilmu Sosial dan Ilmu Politik Universitas Gadjah Mada

Ketua Program Studi Strata-3 Ilmu Komunikasi

Fakultas Ilmu Sosial dan Ilmu Politik

Universitas Gadjah Mada


Abd-Alrazaq, Alaa, Dari Alhuwail, Mowafa Househ, Mounir Hamdi, Zubair Shah, Araz Ramazan Ahmad, Hersh Rasool Murad, et al. 2020. “Free Communication Fake News in the Context of the Covid-19 Pandemic.” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 22 (4): 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2020.04.033%0Ahttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32460566.

Amazeen, Michelle A. 2015. “Revisiting the Epistemology of Fact-Checking.” Critical Review 27 (1): 1–22. https://doi.org/10.1080/08913811.2014.993890.

Asprilla, Adithya, and Nunik Maharani. 2019. “Jurnalisme Data Dalam Digitalisasi Jurnalisme Investigasi Tempo.” Jurnal Kajian Jurnalisme 3 (1): 212–24. https://doi.org/10.24198/kj.v3i1.21362

Bae, Petter, Marika Lüders, Jochen Spangenberg, Linda Rath-Wiggins, and Asbjørn Følstad. 2015. “Emerging Journalistic Verification Practices Concerning Social Media.” Journalism Practice 10 (3): 323–42. https://doi.org/10.1080/17512786.2015.1020331.

Bechmann, Anja. 2020. “Tackling Disinformation and Infodemics Demands Media Policy Changes.” Digital Journalism 8 (6): 855–63. https://doi.org/10.1080/21670811.2020.1773887.

Bilman, Emilie. 2016. “Introduction 5.” Modern Ekphrasis, no. October. https://doi.org/10.3726/978-3-0352-0191-8/4.

Bontcheva, Kalina. n.d. “Deciphering COVID-19 Disinformation,” 1–17.

Brandtzæg, Petter Bae, and Asbjørn Følstad. 2017. “Trust and Distrust in Online Services.” Communications of the ACM 60 (9): 65–71.

“Brennen Simon Howard - Types Sources and Claims.” n.d.

Coddington, Mark, Logan Molyneux, and Regina G. Lawrence. 2014. “Fact Checking the Campaign: How Political Reporters Use Twitter to Set the Record Straight (or Not).” International Journal of Press/Politics 19 (4): 391–409. https://doi.org/10.1177/1940161214540942.

Dugger, William. 1978. “Book Reviews: Book Reviews.” Review of Social Economy 36 (2): 229–31. https://doi.org/10.1080/00346767800000038.

Gehrke, Marília, and Luciana Mielniczuk. 2017. “Philip Meyer, the Outsider Who Created Precision Journalism.” Intexto, no. 39: 4. https://doi.org/10.19132/1807-8583201739.4-13.

Graves, Lucas. 2017. “Anatomy of a Fact Check: Objective Practice and the Contested Epistemology of Fact Checking.” Communication, Culture and Critique 10 (3): 518–37. https://doi.org/10.1111/cccr.12163.

Herfan, Johny. 2015. “Peliputan Investigasi, Profesionalisme Wartawan Investigasi Dan Interplay Antara Struktur Dan Agency.” Jurnal Studi Komunikasi Dan Media 19 (1): 23.

Juditha, Christiany, and Josep Darmawan. 2018. “Penggunaan Media Digital Dan Partisipasi Politik Generasi Milenial.” Jurnal Penelitian Komunikasi Dan Opini Publik 22 (2): 94–109. https://jurnal.kominfo.go.id/index.php/jpkop/article/view/1628.

Kovach, Bill, and Tom Rosenstiel. 2001. “Sembilan Elemen Jurnalisme : Apa Yang Seharusnya Diketahui Wartawan Dan Yang Diharapkan Publik /Bill Kovach, Tom Rosenstiel.”

Krause, Nicole M., Isabelle Freiling, Becca Beets, and Dominique Brossard. 2020. “Fact-Checking as Risk Communication: The Multi-Layered Risk of Misinformation in Times of COVID-19.” Journal of Risk Research 23 (7–8): 1052–59. https://doi.org/10.1080/13669877.2020.1756385.

Krippendorff. 2013. “Content Analysis: An Introduction to Its Methodology: Third Edition: Klaus Krippendorff: 9781412983150.”

Lewandowsky, Stephan, Ullrich K.H. Ecker, and John Cook. 2017. “Beyond Misinformation: Understanding and Coping with the ‘Post-Truth’ Era.” Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition 6 (4): 353–69. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jarmac.2017.07.008.

Lim, Chloe. 2018. “Checking How Fact-Checkers Check.” Research and Politics 5 (3). https://doi.org/10.1177/2053168018786848.

López-García, Xosé, Carmen Costa-Sánchez, and Ángel Vizoso. 2021. “Journalistic Fact-Checking of Information in Pandemic: Stakeholders, Hoaxes, and Strategies to Fight Disinformation during the Covid-19 Crisis in Spain.” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18 (3): 1–15. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18031227.

Lowrey, Wilson. 2017. “The Emergence and Development of News Fact-Checking Sites: Institutional Logics and Population Ecology.” Journalism Studies 18 (3): 376–94. https://doi.org/10.1080/1461670X.2015.1052537.

Luengo, María, and David García-Marín. 2020. “The Performance of Truth: Politicians, Fact-Checking Journalism, and the Struggle to Tackle COVID-19 Misinformation.” American Journal of Cultural Sociology 8 (3): 405–27. https://doi.org/10.1057/s41290-020-00115-w.

Manzerolle, Vincent, and Allison Wiseman. 2016. “On the Transactional Ecosystems of Digital Media.” Communication and the Public 1 (4): 393–408. https://doi.org/10.1177/2057047316679418.

Martin, Nora. 2017. “Journalism, the Pressures of Verification and Notions of Post-Truth in Civil Society.” Cosmopolitan Civil Societies 9 (2): 41–56. https://doi.org/10.5130/ccs.v9i2.5476.

Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis, Richard Fletcher, Nic Newman, J Scott Brennen, and Philip N. Howard. 2020. “Navigating the ‘Infodemic’: How People in Six Countries Access and Rate News and Information about Coronavirus.” Misinformation, Science, and Media, no. April: 1–34. https://bit.ly/2VZ4h9R%0Ahttps://reutersinstitute.politics.ox.ac.uk/sites/default/files/2020-04/Navigating the Coronavirus Infodemic FINAL.pdf%0Ahttps://reutersinstitute.politics.ox.ac.uk/infodemic-how-people-six-countries-access-and-rate-news-and-informa.

Nieminen, Sakari, and Lauri Rapeli. 2019. “Fighting Misperceptions and Doubting Journalists’ Objectivity: A Review of Fact-Checking Literature.” Political Studies Review 17 (3): 296–309. https://doi.org/10.1177/1478929918786852.

Nurlatifah, Mufti, and Irwansyah Irwansyah. 2019. “Fact-Checking Journalism Sebagai Platform Kolaborasi Human and Machine Pada Jurnalisme Digital.” Jurnal Komunikasi 13 (2): 121–34. https://doi.org/10.20885/komunikasi.vol13.iss2.art1.

Orso, Daniele, Nicola Federici, Roberto Copetti, Luigi Vetrugno, and Tiziana Bove. 2020. “Infodemic and the Spread of Fake News in the COVID-19-Era.” European Journal of Emergency Medicine, 327–28. https://doi.org/10.1097/MEJ.0000000000000713.

Prasanti, Ditha. 2018. “Hambatan Komunikasi Dalam Promosi Kesehatan Program Keluarga Berencana ( KB ) IUD Di Bandung.” Jurnal Penelitian Komunikasi Dan Opini Publik 22 (1): 52–63.

Pulido, Cristina M., Beatriz Villarejo-Carballido, Gisela Redondo-Sama, and Aitor Gómez. 2020. “COVID-19 Infodemic: More Retweets for Science-Based Information on Coronavirus than for False Information.” International Sociology 35 (4): 377–92. https://doi.org/10.1177/0268580920914755.

Reese, Stephen D., and Pamela J. Shoemaker. 2016. “A Media Sociology for the Networked Public Sphere: The Hierarchy of Influences Model.” Mass Communication and Society 19 (4): 389–410. https://doi.org/10.1080/15205436.2016.1174268.

Satyawati, Niken Pupy, Prahastiwi Utari, and Sri Hastjarjo. 2019. “Fact Checking of Hoaxes by Masyarakat Antifitnah Indonesia.” International Journal of Multicultural and Multireligious Understanding 6 (6): 159–72.

Schudson, Michael. 2001. “The Objectivity Norm in American Journalism.” Journalism 2 (2): 149–70. https://doi.org/10.1177/146488490100200201.

Shin, Jieun, and Kjerstin Thorson. 2017. “Partisan Selective Sharing: The Biased Diffusion of Fact-Checking Messages on Social Media.” Journal of Communication 67 (2): 233–55. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcom.12284.

Syafrina, Annisa Eka. 2018. “ANCAMAN PRIVASI DALAM BIG DATA Tentu Saja Tantangan Dalam Big Data.” Jurnal Penelitian Komunikasi Dan Opini Publik Vol. 22 No: 138–49.

Teluma, Aurelius RL. 2020. “Membaca Realitas Infodemi Covid-19 Di Indonesia.” JCommsci - Journal Of Media and Communication Science 1 (1): 1. https://doi.org/10.29303/jcommsci.v1i1.91.

Uscinski, Joseph E., and Ryden W. Butler. 2013. “The Epistemology of Fact Checking.” Critical Review 25 (2): 162–80. https://doi.org/10.1080/08913811.2013.843872.

White, Marilyn Domas, and Emily E. Marsh. 2006. “Content Analysis: A Flexible Methodology.” Library Trends 55 (1): 22–45. https://doi.org/10.1353/lib.2006.0053.

Yoedtadi, Moehammad Gafar, Riris Loisa, Gregorius Genep Sukendro, Roswita Oktavianti, and Lusia Savitri. 2020. “Challenges of Peace Journalism on Post Conflict Regions.” Jurnal Penelitian Komunikasi Dan Opini Publik 24 (1). https://doi.org/10.33299/jpkop.24.1.2730.