Hoax Communication Interactivity in Social Media and Anticipation (Interaksi Komunikasi Hoax di Media Sosial serta Antisipasinya)

Christiany Juditha

Abstract

Currently the dissemination of fake information/news (hoax) increasingly widespread. The Mastel 2017 survey revealed of people receive hoaxes every day and receive more than once. The most widely used channel in hoax distribution is social media. The phenomenon of hoaxes in Indonesia raises doubts about the information received and confuses the public. It is utilized by irresponsible parties to inculcate slander and hatred. Therefore, this study aims to get a picture of the interactivity of hoax communication in social media and how to anticipate it. The research method used is a qualitative approach by highlighting three cases of viral hoax in the community regarding the government of President Jokowi and the Governor of DKI Jakarta, Ahok. The result of this research concludes that communication interactivity is very dynamic. The sender / recipient of the hoax message, is a party that does not like the government. Other recipients of the message are also disagreeing and refuting the hoax as support for the government. Political motive is very strong in this case and there is a goal to bring down the government in power or prevent Ahok from becoming governor of DKI Jakarta again. Hoax that is massively deployed and repeated through social media can form public opinion that the news is true. There are three important approaches to anticipate the spread of hoaxes in the community, namely institutional, technological and literacy approaches.


Saat ini penyebaran informasi/berita bohong (hoax) makin marak. Survei Mastel 2017 mengungkapkan bahwa masyarakat menerima hoax setiap hari lebih dari satu kali. Saluran yang paling banyak digunakan dalam penyebaran hoax adalah media sosial. Fenomena hoax di Indonesia menimbulkan keraguan terhadap informasi yang diterima dan mebingungkan masyarakat. Hal ini dimanfaatkan pihak yang tidak bertanggung jawab untuk menanamkan fitnah dan kebencian. Karena itu, penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan gambaran tentang interaksi komunikasi hoax di media sosial dan cara mengantisipasinya. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah pendekatan kualitatif dengan menyoroti tiga kasus hoax yang ramai di masyarakat menyangkut pemerintahan Presiden Jokowi dan Gubernur DKI Jakarta, Ahok. Hasil penelitian ini menyimpulkan bahwa interaksi komunikasi terbangun dengan sangat dinamis. Pengirim atau penerima pesan hoax merupakan pihak yang tidak menyenangi pemerintah. Penerima pesan lainnya juga pihak yang tidak sepakat dan membantah hoax sebagai dukungan terhadap pemerintah. Motif politik sangat kental dalam kasus ini dan ada tujuan menjatuhkan pemerintah yang sedang berkuasa atau mencegah Ahok menjadi gubernur DKI Jakarta lagi. Hoax yang banyak disebar berulang-ulang melalui media sosial dapat membentuk opini publik bahwa berita tersebut benar adanya. Ada tiga pendekatan penting untuk mengantisipasi penyebaran hoax di masyarakat yaitu pendekatan kelembagaan, teknologi dan literasi.


Keywords


interactivity, communication, hoax, social media


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.30818/jpkm.2018.2030104

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